Credit Cards Prepaid Cards Gift Cards Tools

2013 Credit Card Landscape Report

CardHub-2013-Credit-Card-Landscape-StudyWe called Q3 2013 the calm before the storm, as credit card rates, rewards, and fees generally plateaued, causing us to wonder if the third-quarter landscape was the new norm or not long for this world. The year’s fourth quarter provided more evidence, with general stabilization characterizing the market.

Neither the government shutdown nor the Federal Reserve’s decision to taper its bond-buying program proved enough to rattle the credit card landscape in any significant fashion. And it appears that with the exception of a few credit categories and card terms, the steadfast landscape offers a lot of value for the consumer. We just need to harness that value for good — building an emergency fund and paying off debt, for example — rather than using it to perpetuate bad habits.

Q1 Main Findings

  • Industry competition has reduced interest rates for people with excellent credit, while a lack thereof is having the opposite effect on rates targeted to people with average/below-average credit, and other consumer segments are seeing rates stabilize with the economic recovery: The average interest rate for people with excellent credit (12.79%) is down 1.69% relative to Q4 2012, and the average rates for people with credit on the low end of the spectrum have increased between 1.7% and 3.0% on average.
  • 0% offers and initial rewards bonus are experiencing resurgence after appearing to peak in months past:  The average 0% balance transfer term (10.29 months) is 2.39% longer than in Q4 2012 and the average 0% purchase APR is available for 2.53% longer than Q4 2012 (10.13 months). The average cash back initial bonus ($76.81) is 33.77% more lucrative than it was this time last year, and the average points/miles bonus (11,446) has risen 13.89% since then.
  • Changes to common fees continue to reflect consumer preference:  Foreign transaction fees, which more and more consumers have become aware of in recent years, are 5.88% less expensive than last year. Cash advance fees, which credit applicants typically pay little attention to, are 22.61% more expensive.
  • Consumer complaints indicate increasing concern about credit scores and credit lines, less worry when it comes to interest rates and the debt payoff process: The number of complaints categorized by the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau as being related to Credit Determination and/or Credit Lines rose 92.3% during the first quarter of 2013, while those tied to the Payoff Process and Interest Rates fell 39% and 35.9%, respectively.
  • Foreign transaction fees are stabilizing:  While the average foreign transaction fee has fallen more than 7% since last year, the downward trend is beginning to flatten out, as the 2.25% average we saw in Q4 2012 represents a 0.90% increase from the previous quarter.

Q2 Main Findings

Interest Rates

  • At 20.65%, the average interest rate for people with fair credit is 2.38% higher than last quarter and 2.48% higher than this time last year.
  • At 15.49%, the average interest rate for small business credit cards is 1.24% higher than last quarter and 2.51% higher than this time last year.
  • Rates for all other card segments mainly reflect market stabilization.

Analysis: “A variety of different cohort-specific dynamics have conspired to push interest rates for different consumer segments in opposite directions. People with excellent credit continue to be the bell of the credit card ball, so to speak, and were therefore largely immune to the interest rate increases witnessed across most other consumer segments. By and large, these increases were likely due to some combination of the economy’s stabilization and concerns about changes in Federal Reserve policy. A lack of issuer competition at the low end of the credit spectrum also contributed to the increase in rates offered for secured credit cards and to people with fair credit, while the rise in business credit card rates may reflect concerns about the current small business landscape or a future extension of CARD Act protections to the small business community.”

Initial Perks (0% APRs & Rewards Bonuses)

  • The average 0% intro rate for balance transfers now remains in effect for 9.94 months. That is 3.40% shorter than last quarter.
  • The average 0% intro rate for new purchases now remains in effect for 10.17 months. That is 0.39% longer than in Q1 2013.
  • At $74.70, the average cash back initial rewards bonus has fallen $2.11 from last quarter. However, it is still $18.49 more lucrative than this time last year.
  • At 12,382, the average points/miles initial rewards bonus is 8.17% higher than last quarter and 14.79% higher than this time last year.

Analysis: “Much like with regular rates, the second quarter of 2013 marked disparate trends for different types of credit card sign-up perks. Interest-free introductory periods were shorter for balance transfers than in previous quarters, yet longer for new purchases. And the value of rewards remains significantly higher than last year. The question is why. The answer is that banks are likely seeing diminishing returns from indebted consumers, which makes balance transfer offers less profitable, yet are still actively recruiting consumers who either always pay their bills in full or who have debt-to-income ratios that are low enough to sustain additional debt that may result from taking advantage of 0% financing on new purchases.”

Fees

  • The average balance transfer fee – 2.88% of the amount transferred – is 2.86% higher than last quarter, yet 3.03% lower than during the second quarter of 2012.
  • Now at 2.22%, the average foreign transaction fee is exactly the same as it was this time last year.
  • The average cash advance fee is now $10.88 – 22.11% higher than in Q2 2012.

Analysis: “Balance transfer fees rose during the second quarter of 2013 in accordance with the decline in 0% term length, and foreign transaction fees fell to summer 2012 levels as we entered the busy travel season. Issuers have also found themselves able to keep cash advance fees high without much concern of consumer blow back given that most people do not even consider such fees when applying for new credit card accounts.”

Consumer Complaints

  • In Q2 2013, the most common types of consumer credit card complaints dealt with: 1) Billing; 2) Debt Collection; and 3) Identity Theft/Fraud/Embezzlement.
  • Identity Theft/Fraud/Embezzlement replaced Credit Reporting as one of the three most common consumer complaints in Q2 2013.

Analysis: “Billing and debt collection routinely top the list of common complaints made to the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau, and that’s really no surprise. We racked up roughly $82 billion in credit card debt over the past two years alone and are on pace to add an additional $47 billion in 2013, after all. Debt collectors are also a notoriously unscrupulous bunch, so it makes sense that consumers are going to find issues with their practices. What’s more, the rise in fraud-related complaints can be explained by the fact that April falls during the second quarter of the year, and tax refunds make enticing bait for fraudsters.”

Q3 Main Findings

Interest Rates

  • Rates for secured credit card users and people with fair credit are as much as 17% higher than they were both last quarter and last year.
  • Rates for people with excellent credit (12.73%) are down relative to both last quarter and last year.
  • Rates for small business credit card users (15.42%) have fallen since last quarter, yet still represent a 1.51% increase relative to last year.

Analysis:  “While issuer competition continued to drive down interest rates for the most profitable user cohorts – consumers with excellent credit and small business owners – a competition vacuum at the bottom of the credit spectrum caused rates for people with fair credit to continue their climb upward.  Inexplicably, however, secured credit card interest rates also rose during the third quarter of the year.  This development cannot be attributed to the economic environment, as secured cards carry no issuer risk, nor can it be ascribed to a lack of competition because minimal risk in this segment of the market spurs issuer interest that is absent for unsecured credit cards targeted to people with fair credit.  The most logical explanation is therefore price insensitivity among the secured card target market.”

Initial Perks (0% APRs & Rewards Bonuses)

  • The average 0% purchase APR is now being offered for 10.27 months – 0.98% longer than last quarter and 2.60% longer than last year.
  • The average 0% balance transfer APR is now being offered for 9.84 months, which represents a 1.01% decrease from last quarter and a 2.19% decrease from last year.
  • Initial rewards bonuses stabilized during Q3 2013, with cash back bonuses becoming marginally less attractive compared to last quarter and points/miles bonuses improving slightly.  Both types of rewards bonuses are significantly more lucrative than last year.

Analysis:  “The obvious question stemming from the changes to credit card sign-up perks witnessed during Q3 2013 is why 0% balance transfer offers are becoming less attractive while 0% purchase deals continue to increase in value.  Two factors in particular are likely contributing to this phenomenon:  1) a decline in the number of qualified balance transfer applicants; and 2) the fact that 0% purchase offers represent a more stable source of revenue.

You see, attractive 0% balance transfer deals have been around for quite a while now, and most of the consumers who are able to garner approval for these deals likely have already taken advantage of them.  And while the average balance transfer fee – 3.07% – is comparable to the 3% swipe fee that issuers receive from merchants whenever a customer uses plastic to make a purchase, issuers simply have a better chance of receiving swipe fee payments than transfer fees which are ultimately rolled into one’s principal balance for repayment.  In other words, an issuer might not receive its fee if an indebted consumer defaults on a balance transfer but will definitely get paid whenever someone with a 0% purchase APR uses their card to buy something.”

Ongoing Rewards

  • While the value of ongoing rewards (both cash back and points/miles) was much higher in Q3 2013 than in Q3 2012, base earning rates seem to have plateaued, changing only marginally from the second quarter of the year to the third.

Analysis: “Issuers seem to have settled on a cost-effective price point for their rewards.  In other words, they have found a way to effectively balance the value that rewards provide in terms of customer attraction and retention with the cost of providing them.  Whether or not things will change as a result of the government shutdown and looming debt ceiling unrest remains to be seen.”

Fees

  • Cash advance fees continued their dramatic rise during Q3 2013.  At $10.94, the average cash advance fee is now 0.55% higher than last quarter and 21.96% higher than last year.
  • At 3.07%, the average balance transfer fee rose 0.66% during the third quarter of 2013 to return to Q3 2012 levels.

Analysis:  “The continued rise of cash advance fees can be chalked up to consumer apathy.  People simply don’t care about cash advance fees when they’re applying for credit cards because most of us do not anticipate needing to make a cash advance.  As a result, issuers are able to pretty much price cash advances however they please.  The gradual rise in balance transfer fees, on the other hand, serves as yet another reason why indebted consumers with above-average credit standing should leverage 0% balance transfer deals now before their value falls too far beneath peak levels.”

Consumer Complaints

  •  Complaints regarding credit reports as well as the collection of debt both declined nearly 99% from Q2 to Q3, perhaps reflecting improved consumer performance or the CFPB’s efforts to regulate those areas more stringently.
  • Complaints regarding fees and accounting closing increased the most – at 46.48% and 9.44%, respectively.

Analysis: “Are consumers acting to remove temptation by closing their credit card accounts in order to avoid adding to the $6,900 balance the average household currently has with their credit card company?  A nearly 10% increase in the number of people complaining about issues related to account closure would seem to suggest that.  And with credit card overleveraging returning to dangerous levels in recent quarters, it would be admirable if that proves to be the rationale.  But consumers should consider simply cutting up their cards and keeping their accounts open.  This will remove temptation while allowing the card to continue sending information to the major credit bureaus on a monthly basis.  As long as this info reflects on-time payments and low credit utilization, it will benefit your credit score.”

Q4 Main Findings

Interest Rates

  • Interest rates held steady for the most part during the fourth quarter of 2013, with the above-average credit categories, students, and small business owners seeing little change in their APRs relative to both Q3 2013 and Q4 2012.
  • It is, however, worth noting that rates for people with fair and damaged credit rose during Q4, with the former displaying a significant 15.37% increase in average APR relative to Q3.

Analysis: “The last few months of 2013 were characterized by generally positive economic news and cautious optimism as the Federal Reserve announced plans to taper its bond-buying program. Credit card interest rates largely mirrored the broader economic environment in Q4, displaying continued stability for the most part while trending slightly upward in certain credit categories. Most notably, Q4 saw average APRs increase in the fair and bad credit categories – by 15.37% and 5.08%, respectively. This is likely attributable to a lack of competition in these segments of the credit market as well as a general apathy among customers toward product comparison.”

Initial Perks (0% APRs & Rewards Bonuses)

  • The average 0% purchase APR is now being offered for 10.20 months – 0.68% shorter than last quarter but still 3.24% longer than last year.
  • The average 0% balance transfer APR is now being offered for 10.36 months – 5.28% longer than last quarter and 3.08% longer than last year.
  • After stabilizing somewhat during Q3 2013, initial rewards bonuses displayed marked improvement in Q4. Both the average cash back bonus – $84.32 – and the average points/miles bonus – 12,948 – were over 25% more lucrative compared to just the prior quarter.

Analysis: “Perhaps the most interesting development in the Q4 credit card market was the seeming revitalization of 0% balance transfer offers. After falling for consecutive quarters, the average introductory period increased more than 5%, from 9.84 months to 10.36. As a result, and contrary to our previous assessment, it appears that instead of fading away entirely, balance transfer savings are simply a seasonal attraction. Banks sweetened their offers during the first and fourth quarters of 2013, apparently in accordance with the winter shopping season and the resolution-fueled New Year. Those happen to be the times when people historically rack up and pay off the most debt, respectively.”

Ongoing Rewards

  • Ongoing rewards earning rates for both cash back and points/miles credit cards held steady during the fourth quarter, reinforcing the notion of stabilization in this area of the credit card landscape.

Analysis: “Issuers appear to have struck the right balance between initial bonus and ongoing earn rate in this economic environment, settling on a system where they offer around 1% cash back or 1 point/mile per dollar as a foundation supplemented by eye-catching rewards bounties for the best customers. Barring significant changes in the economy, we should expect this dynamic to persist.”

Fees

  • Cash advance fees and balance transfer fees continued to rise during Q4 2013, with the latter expected to remain near the current 3% mark moving forward.

Analysis: “More than anything, increases in the average cash advance and balance transfer fees are indicative of a combination of consumer apathy and banking opacity. Most people simply do not consider cash advance fees when they choose a credit card, and balance transfer fees are among the least clearly displayed terms on a credit card’s online application page. Improvements in both regards are clearly in order.”

Consumer Complaints

  • Credit-oriented consumer complaints increased 232% in Q4 2013 relative to the same time period in 2012 while identity theft and fraud-related cases rose 82%, seemingly as a result of the Target breach, which saw fraudsters compromise some 40 million credit and debit card accounts.
  • On the other hand, debt collection and credit reporting complaints both fell nearly 100% in the past year, perhaps indicating CFPB-driven improvement in the industry.

Analysis: “It’s really no surprise that complaints regarding credit cards and fraud increased significantly during 2013, as the end of the year marked one of the most significant payment breaches in history. With roughly 40 million accounts compromised, Target being one of the most popular retailers around, and the breach occurring during the busy holiday shopping season, consumers are obviously going to be angry and brimming with questions about their account security. The good news, as you may know, is that consumers generally are not held liable for unauthorized transactions, especially when a credit card is involved.”

Data & Graphs

Interest Rate Landscape

Q1 2013
(vs. last yr)
Q2 2013
(vs. last yr)
Q3 2013
(vs. last yr)
Q4 2013
(vs. last yr)
Q4 vs. Q3
Change
Excellent Credit 12.79%
(-1.46%)
12.80%
(-1.16%)
12.73%
(-2.00%)
12.78%
(-1.77%)
+0.39%
Good Credit 17.07%
(-0.29%)
17.22%
(+0.58%)
17.21%
(+0.23%)
17.29%
(+0.29%)
+0.46%
Fair Credit 20.17%
(-0.64%)
20.65%
(+2.48%)
22.59%
(+17.78%)
22.59%
(+15.37%)
0.00%
Secured Credit Cards 18.23%
(+2.94%)
18.65%
(-2.25%)
19.23%
(+6.77%)
18.83%
(+5.08%)
-2.08%
Student Credit Cards 16.56%
(+4.74%)
16.59%
(+1.78%)
16.66%
(+1.59%)
16.66%
(+0.3%)
+0.00%
Business Credit Cards 15.3%
(+0.33%)
15.49%
(+2.51%)
15.42%
(+1.51%)
15.44%
(+0.39%)
+0.13%

 

Interest Rate Landscape

Balance Transfer Landscape

Q1 2013
(vs. last yr)
Q2 2013
(vs. last yr)
Q3 2013
(vs. last yr)
Q4 2013
(vs. last yr)
Q4 vs. Q3
Change
Average Length of 0% APR Intro Period (in months) 10.29
(+2.18%)
9.94
(-3.21%)
9.84
(-2.19%)
10.36
(+3.08%)
+5.28%
Range of 0% APR Intro Periods (in months) 6-18 months 6-18 months 6-18 months 6-18 months N/A
Average Regular APR for Cards that have 0% Intro APR on Balance Transfers 16.1%
(-2.95%)
16.28%
(-1.63%)
15.97%
(-3.74%)
15.93%
(-4.04%)
-0.25%
Range of Regular APRs for Cards that have 0% Intro APR on Balance Transfers 8.15%-25.99% 8.15%-25.99% 8.15%-25.99% 8.15%-25.99% N/A
Average Balance Transfer Fee for Cards with 0% Intro APR on Balance Transfers 3.02%
(-3.51%)
3.05%
(-3.17%)
3.07%
(0%)
3.07%
(+1.66%)
0.00%

New Purchase Landscape

Q1 2013
(vs. last yr)
Q2 2013
(vs. last yr)
Q3 2013
(vs. last yr)
Q4 2013
(vs. last yr)
Q4 vs. Q3
Change
Average Length of 0% Intro Period (in months) 10.13
(+4.54%)
10.17
(+2.73%)
10.27
(+2.60%)
10.2
(+3.24%)
-0.68%
Range of 0% APR Intro Periods (in months) 6-18 months 6-18 months 6-18 months 6-18 months N/A
Average Regular APR for Cards that have 0% Intro APR on New Purchases 16.55%
 (+1.35%)
16.84%
 (+3.31%)
16.75%
 (+1.58%)
16.83%
 (+3.51%)
+0.48%
Range of Regular APRs for Cards that have 0% Intro APR on Purchases  7.49%-25.99%  7.49%-25.99%  7.50%-25.99% 7.50%-25.99% N/A

 

0% Introductory Periods

Rewards Landscape

Cash Back

Q1 2013
(vs. last yr)
Q2 2013
(vs. last yr)
Q3 2013
(vs. last yr)
Q4 2013
(vs. last yr)
Q4 vs. Q3
Change
Average Base Earn Rate 0.99
(0%)
0.99
(+1.02%)
0.99
(+1.02%)
0.96
(-1.03%)
-3.03%
Range of Base Earn Rate 0.25%-2% 0.25%-2% 0.25%-2% 0.25%-2% N/A
Average Initial Bonus $76.81
(+33.77%)
$74.70
(+32.89%)
$74.45
(+24.37%)
$84.32
(+26.68%)
+13.26%
Range of Initial Bonus $10-$200 $10-$200 $10-$200 $10-$200 N/A

Miles or Points

Q1 2013
(vs. last yr)
Q2 2013
(vs. last yr)
Q3 2013
(vs. last yr)
Q4 2013
(vs. last yr)
Q4 vs. Q3
Change
Average Base Earn Rate (in miles or points) 1.13
(+5.61%)
1.14
(+5.56%)
1.15
(+6.48%)
1.15
(+4.55%)
0.00%
Range of Base Earn Rate 0.5-5 miles/points 0.5-5 miles/points 0.5-5 miles/points 0.5-5 miles/points N/A
Average Initial Bonus (in miles or points) 11,446
(+13.89%)
12,381
(+14.79%)
12,471
(+31.69%)
12,948
(+25.27%)
+3.82%
Range of Initial Bonus 500-85,000 miles/points 500-85,000 miles/points 500-85,000 miles/points 500-85,000 miles/points N/A

 

Base Earn Rates

 

Initial Bonus Points/Miles

 

Fees

Q1 2013
(vs. last yr)
Q2 2013
(vs. last yr)
Q3 2013
(vs. last yr)
Q4 2013
(vs. last yr)
Q4 vs. Q3
Change
Average Maximum Late Fee $33.46
(+1.06%)
$33.47
(+1.15%)
$33.6
(+1.24%)
$33.66
(+0.99%)
N/A
Average Foreign Transaction Fee 2.24%
(-5.88%)
2.22%
(0%)
2.22%
(-0,45%)
2.24%
(-0,44%)
N/A
Foreign Transaction Fee Range 0% – 3% 0% – 3% 0% – 3% 0% – 3% N/A
Average Balance Transfer Fee for Cards with Intro Balance Transfer APR 2.8%
(-8.2%)
2.88%
(-3.03%)
2.8%
(0%)
2.99%
(+6.79%)
N/A

 

Average Fees

 

Penalty APRs

Q1 2013
(vs. last yr)
Q2 2013
(vs. last yr)
Q3 2013
(vs. last yr)
Q4 2013
(vs. last yr)
Q4 vs. Q3
Change
Average 28.07%
(-1.61%)
28.25%
(-1.00%)
28.17%
(0%)
28.14%
(0%)
0%
Range 16.99%-30.24% 16.99%-30.24% 16.99%-30.24% 16.99%-30.24% N/A

 

Cash Advances

Q1 2013
(vs. last yr)
Q2 2013
(vs. last yr)
Q3 2013
(vs. last yr)
Q4 2013
(vs. last yr)
Q4 vs. Q3
Change
Average APR 22.33%
(-1.61%)
22.63%
(-1.00%)
22.63%
(0%)
22.69%
(-0.32%)
0.27%
APR Range 6.25%-36.00% 6.25%-36.00% 6.25%-36.00% 6.25%-36.00% N/A
Average Cash Advance Fee % 3.89%
(+4.57%)
3.91%
(+4.83%)
3.91%
(+4.27%)
3.94%
(+1.81%)
+0.77%
Average Cash Advance Fee $ Amount $10.9
(+22.61%)
$10.88
(+22.11%)
$10.94
(+21.96%)
$11.19
(+26.30%)
+2.29%

Credit Card Debt

Q1 2013
(vs. last yr)
Q2 2013
(vs. last yr)
Q3 2013
(vs. last yr)
Q4 2013
(vs. last yr)
Q4 vs. Q3
Change
Accumulation $32.5 billion
(-7%)
$17 billion
(-3%)
$11.9 billion
(-8%)
$42.1 billion
(+4.93%)
+254%
Delinquency Rate* 2.78%
(-13.87%)
2.41%
(-13.62%)
2.47%
(-13.02%)
2.45%
(-11.87%)
-0.81%
Charge-Off Rate* 4.29%
(-11.89%)
3.62%
(-12.77%)
3.19%
(-14.71%)
3.15%
(-16.6%)
-1.25%

*Not seasonally adjusted

Unemployment

 

Q1 2013
(vs. last yr)
Q2 2013
(vs. last yr)
Q3 2013
(vs. last yr)
Q4 2013
(vs. last yr)
Q4 vs. Q3
Change
Unemployment Rate 7.80%
(-10.30%)
7.60%
(-7.30%)
7.20%
(-7.70%)
6.70%
(N/A)
-0.50%

 

Delinquency, Charge-Off, & Unemployment Rates

Popular Consumer Complaints (Percentage of All Complaints Filed)

 

Q1 2013
(vs. last yr)
Q2 2013
(vs. last yr)
Q3 2013
(vs. last yr)
Q4 2013
(vs. last yr)
Q4 vs. Q3
Change
Billing 22.4%
(N/A)
24.22%
(-4.55%)
24.19%
(+18.31%)
23.69%
(+18.08%)
-2.09%
APR or Interest Rate 6.6%
(N/A)
6.45%
(-51.6%)
5.97%
(-52.98%)
6.00%
(-41.50%)
+0.38%
Identity theft / Fraud / Embezzlement 6.0%
(N/A)
7.44%
(-6.61%)
7.31%
(-5.96%)
8.85%
(+82.23%)
+21.01%
Closing/Cancelling Account 6.1%
(N/A)
7.22%
(+25.80%)
7.90%
(+10.16%)
7.08%
(+12.20%)
-10.37%
Collection 8.2%
(N/A)
7.93%
(+58.57%)
0.15%
(-97.81%)
0.07%
(-99.03%)
-49.49%
Credit Reporting 9.9%
(N/A)
3.13%
(-48.71%)
0.04%
(-99.44%)
0.04%
(-99.64%)
+1.01%
Credit Card Protection / Debt Protection 3.2%
(N/A)
2.74%
(-49.07%)
2.78%
(-57.49%)
2.92%
(-13.87%)
+5.05%
Credit 5.0%
(N/A)
7.01%
(-14.01%)
6.53%
(+9.77%)
8.58%
(+232.71%)
+31.43%
Payoff Process 3.6%
(N/A)
3.07%
(-27.85%)
2.67%
(-33.31%)
2.36%
(-59.79%)
-11.61%
Fees 7.3%
(N/A)
6.05%
(+133.51%)
8.87%
(+149.28%)
8.55%
(+7.59%)
-3.64%

 

2.92% 8.58% 2.36% 8.55%

Q3 2013 Consumer Credit Card Complaints

Notable 2013 Credit Card Offers

0% Intro Rates:

Other Years’ Reports

 

This report was compiled using data from the 1000+ credit card offers that CardHub.com monitors on a daily basis. For questions or more information regarding this report, please contact our media department.

Previous CardHub’s 2014 Money-Saving Resolutions   Ask the Experts: Should Small Business Owners Seek Venture Capital Financing? Next
POST YOUR COMMENT

Our content is intended for general educational purposes and should not be relied upon as the sole basis for managing your finances. Furthermore, the materials on this website do not constitute legal advice and should not be relied upon as such. If you have any legal questions, please consult an attorney. Please let us know if you have any questions or suggestions.